Hair loss is a very common problem that almost every individual encounters during a certain period of their lives. Hair loss, which is more common in men, usually starts at the age of 25 and affects up to 70% of all men throughout their lives.
The rate of hair loss varies from person to person. It generally starts with the receding of the hairline and thinning of the hair on the front and top of the head and it may progress until there will be no hair on the top of the head. These losses in the hair, which constitute a very important part of our appearance, cause significant psychological problems apart from physical problems. Almond Hair
The hair quickly goes into the resting stage and the amount of hair loss increases due to many reasons including environmental factors, air pollution, stress, tiredness, poor nutrition, chronic diseases, medication intake, hormonal causes, genetic predisposition, and harmful chemicals in cosmetic products used for hair.
If there is an increase in the amount of hair loss and if the person feels that his/her hair has become unhealthy and its density is reduced, this indicates that there is a hair loss problem to be considered.
Before starting the treatment, the type of hair loss must be examined by a specialist. Because diseases, hormonal and metabolic effects, and nutrients may also cause hair loss. Without eliminating such problems, 100% treatment is never possible.
Hair loss is divided into two as hereditary and temporary. Almond Hair
TEMPORARY HAIR LOSS
Usual hair loss
Normally, hair in the telogen phase, which has completed its development stage and has been disconnected from the follicle, is shed. A maximum of 100 hair loss per day is considered normal. Shedding above this number is defined as the ‘hair loss problem’.
Hair loss during pregnancy and birth
In cases of enzyme deficiencies and hormonal imbalances, the follicle enters the catagen phase and hair growth stops, resulting in hair loss in less time than usual. Shedding stops when the hormones are balanced. For example, the problem usually disappears 6 months after birth. Almond Hair
Too Much Stress
Particularly the psychosomatic diseases are known to be associated with long-term stress. Similarly, stress experienced by a person due to, for example, the death of a loved one, breaking up with the lover, or loss of employment may also lead to hair loss problems (telogen effluvium). This problem, which usually develops rapidly depending on the personality structure, may also develop slowly due to long-term psychological disorders. Almond Hair
Alopecia areata, also known as spot baldness, is a temporary hair loss problem that occurs in a circular area with a diameter of 2–2.5 cm. Alopecia areata affects men and women equally regardless of age. It develops as a result of decreased body resistance due to long-term and too much stress. With the recovery of the body’s immunity, the hair grows again in the area of shedding.
Hair loss due to cosmetic products and their improper use
Synthetic substances used in cosmetic products or improper of such products may lead to irritation and allergies to the hair and scalp, which may eventually result in hair loss. For example; shampoos and hair dyes, which are not suitable for the person’s hair type, and the materials and substances used to shape the hair may have adverse effects on hair.
It is usually seen after a prolonged high fever. This type of hair loss, which occurs 4-6 weeks following high fever, is called postfebrile alopecia. Almond Hair
Hair loss due to medication intake
Some medications (blood coagulation preparations, antidepressants, antihypertensive agents, the contraceptive pills or high doses of vitamin A in particular) can damage the hair follicles and lead to hair loss, especially if they are taken for a long time (Diffuse alopecia).
Hair loss due to some diseases
Especially genetic and hormonal diseases and diseases such as AIDS, Lichen planus, and folliculitis are the causes of temporary hair loss. Almond Hair
Unilateral nutrition can lead to protein, vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Insufficient intake of iron, zinc, sulfur, and vitamins from the B group, which are of particular importance for hair health, cause hair loss.
HEREDITARY HAIR LOSS
In this process, strong hair strands turn into thin hairs with the effect of the male hormone, the hair growth phase shortens and hair root activity reduces significantly. This type of hair loss is manifested by hair cavities. They first appear at the corner of the forehead, which is often followed by bald spots on the headline and the top of the head.
Androgenetic alopecia is dependent on androgens – male hormones – and is seen in people with genetic disposition after puberty, i.e. when they are at the ages of 20 and 30. It occurs with the hair pulling back along the forehead line which is followed by thinning and shedding the hair on the top of the head. Although this condition is named in many different ways, it is generally expressed as Androgenetic Alopecia, Male Pattern Alopecia, Ordinary Baldness. It may extend all over the head. However, many sufferers keep their hair on the temples and neck. It is not considered a disease but a characteristic structure of men. Almond Hair
Androgenetic alopecia may also occur in women but in a different way than in the men.
Both men and women carry the androgen hormone. Since these hormones are present in every individual, one may ask why not everybody’s hair is shed. In addition to genetic predisposition, the following points are also important:
- People with androgenetic alopecia have more androgen receptors in their hair. Although the hormone is at the normal level, it has significant effects on the hair because there is a lot of receptor binding it.
- The receptors of people with androgenetic alopecia are more sensitive.
- Alpha-5 reductase enzyme activity is higher in cases with androgenetic alopecia.
After puberty, about half of men may experience androgenetic alopecia. Three factors play a leading role in androgenetic alopecia:
The resistance of the organism generally decreases with age. Since hair is also a part of an organism, its resistance also decreases with the passing years. The rate of hair loss increases in individuals, who have a genetic predisposition to it, within time.
Testosterone, the male sex hormone, is converted into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT binds to the corresponding receptors on the hair follicles, creating a rapidly accelerating miniaturization on the terminal hair follicles. As a result, terminal hair begins to look like vellus hair. Weak, thin, and colorless (vellus) hair starts to grow in miniaturized follicles. When the follicles that continue to become smaller are examined under a microscope, it is seen that they become a remnant of the cell sheath and thus, the hair follicle disappears. Almond Hair
In people with an inherited hypersensitivity to DHT, the duration of anagen phase shortens, leading to the shortening of the anagen phase in the life cycle of the hair. Thus, the maximum achievable length of the hair is also reduced.
- 5-alpha reductase
5-alpha reductase is an enzyme found in high concentrations in the reproductive tissues of men, genital area and liver. It converts testosterone to DHT. Thus, the androgen activity of testosterone is increased. Hair loss does not occur in men with 5-alpha reductase enzyme deficiency.
The enzyme 5-alpha reductase has 2 isoenzymes:
– Type I
– Type II
Testosterone can show activity in some target cells unchanged such as striated muscles, central nervous system, and bones. However, it sometimes needs to be converted to DHT to show its activity. This transformation is carried out by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase found in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus membrane.
Whereas testosterone is converted to androsterone and etiocholanolone in the liver, Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is converted to androsterone, androstenedione, and androstanolone.
Testosterone is metabolized in the nongenital skin and liver with 5-alpha reductase Type I isoenzyme whereas it is metabolized in male urogenital tissue, male and female genital skin with Type II isoenzyme.
Furthermore, testosterone is converted to oestradiol by aromatase * enzyme in the liver and adipose tissue. Almond Hair
Effects of Testosterone:
– Internal genital tissue development
– Skeletal muscle development
– External genital tissue development
– Prostate enlargement
– Hair loss
Inhibition of 5-alpha reductase enzyme:
5-alpha reductase enzyme blockers inhibit the formation of DHT. 5-alpha reductase enzyme blockers inhibit the formation of DHT and thus, the formation of hair loss is prevented in advance. In later times, thin and vellus hair begins to grow again, thicken and get its own color. As hair growth is a long process, the effect is also expected to occur at least a year later. Almond Hair
From plant origin compounds, flavonoids-derived myricetin inhibits 5-alpha reductase Type 1 isoenzyme and chemferol inhibits 5-alpha reductase Type II isoenzyme.
It has been reported that after puberty, the hairline recedes in 94.96% of white men and about 50% of them have hair loss in the forehead and on the top of the head.
Symptoms of androgenetic alopecia occur in 30% of men at the age of 25, in 40% of men at the age of 40, and in 50% of women at the age of 50.
Androgenetic Alopecia is seen in 20–30% of women. Almond Hair